Hermes Capecod Watch 20th Anniversary

The Hermès Cape Cod series watches have undergone different stages of evolution. The lines of the case show a more elegant arc. The Cape Cod tonneau watch reproduces the original chain link design. The strap follows another Hermès distinctive design since 1998, the double-circle strap, which is naturally integrated into the design of the entire watch.

Hermès Cape Cod watch

Cape Cod Small Watch, Lime Strap
   The Cape Cod watch series also has a new color every year. This season’s small watch has two new color belts. The first one is a fresh lime calfskin belt. If it slightly exudes lemon aroma, there are single or double ring models. Add a touch of liveliness to the simple and simple stainless steel case.

Cape Cod mechanical watch

   316L stainless steel case, 36.5 x 35.4 mm, hours, minutes, seconds, date, self-winding mechanical movement, water resistant to 50 meters, anti-reflective sapphire crystal glass, dark gray alligator strap, safety folding buckle, price 32,000 yuan.

Cape Cod Mechanical Jewellery Watch

   18K rose gold case, 29 x 29 mm, set with 64 brilliant-cut diamonds, weighing 1.6 carats, white natural mother-of-pearl dial, hours, minutes and seconds, mechanical movement with automatic winding, water-resistant to 50 meters, anti-reflective Sapphire crystal glass and cigar-colored alligator strap. The price is 190,000 yuan.

Cape Cod double circle leather strap watch
   316L stainless steel case, diameter 23 x 23 mm, hour and minute display, quartz movement, anti-reflective sapphire crystal glass, double-circle calfskin leather strap, priced at 18,000 yuan.

Cape Cod seven-day tourbillon watch
   18K white gold case, diameter 39.5 x 37.5 mm, hours, minutes, seconds, 30-second tourbillon, seven-day power reserve display, Hermès H8930 manual winding movement, waterproof 30 meters, anti-reflective sapphire crystal glass, black short kiss Crocodile leather strap, 18K white gold safety folding buckle, price 13.32 billion yuan.

Brand New Brand Ipad App Is Online

According to the watch house, Breguet launched the Le Quai de l’Horloge n ° 2 app in 2012, which has received praise from many users. This year Breguet brought a new version of Le Quai de l’Horloge n ° 3 officially meets everyone.

 “Le Quai de l’ Horloge n ° 3” is meant to pay tribute to the watchmaker Abraham-Louis Breguet (1747-1823). Breguet has produced three series of watches, attracting many wealthy big customers, including Louis XVI, Queen Marie Antoinette, Louis XVII, George IV, Napoleon, Alexander I, etc. Wait

 ‘Le Quai de l’ Horloge n ° 3’ presents a series of interactive articles on Breguet history and products, showing that manufacturers are at the forefront of technology. Breguet linked the article to the story of the original concept of a tourbillon that was invented by Abraham Louis Breguet and patented in France in 1801.

 Anyone who logs in to the App Store can download and use it for free. This version is also available in French and English. I believe there will be a brand new experience.

Dubai Successfully Hosted The New ‘dubai Chief Mohammed Al Maktoum Endurance Race’ Sponsored By Longines Again

Longines, a well-known Swiss watchmaker, once again successfully sponsored the new ‘H Dubai Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Endurance Cup’. The event was held on January 6th in Dubai International Endurance City. This international equestrian event has attracted some of the world’s top endurance riders to compete for the throne of the 160km race.

   Participants started on the early morning of Saturday at the Dubai International Endurance Race City Racecourse, which was built specifically for the event. The course consisted of five stages that were gradually reduced. The race was won by Saif Almazrouei, who rides Nopoli Del Ma. He was awarded an elegant Longines watch in recognition of his outstanding performance.

   On the day of the event, the public will have the opportunity to appreciate the event’s designated watch, a sun-patterned blue dial watch from the Longines Master. Fashion tones complement the classic and subtle design styles of this collection, as well as an elegant blue alligator strap.

Slyde Online Store Opens-news Slyde

Slyde watches-using the basic intuitive technical principles to enhance the watchmaking industry in the 21st century-can be bought in the most famous watch boutiques. From this winter, they are equipped with three analog movements (including a series of personalized displays). Each watch consists of 7 independent display functions: time, date, time zone, calendar, moon phase profit and loss, chronograph. Table and countdown timer. This series of watches is rich in talents, which can satisfy users to use the watch touch screen to navigate and customize the time display method.
Just like Slyde itself, the Slyde online store will be continuously updated. He grants users permission to allow users to participate in more than 10 original movements-Roller and Flip-Clock Engine movements-in different colors, some of which are free.
First virtual tourbillon available online
Instead of a movement, use digital gears to build a device with a single module connection. This method is thanks to the geniuses Jorg Hysek and Fabrice Gonet. Slyde today is creating a watch for tomorrow.

Three versions of the Slyde Digital Tourbillon

The Swiss brand has just developed a virtual tourbillon movement, which is a miracle in digital movement! This movement, like all other Slyde movements, has seven functions. The polishing is meticulous, revealing the classic effect and different from the others.
It is available in three versions (see image below). The first watch with ‘traditional’ chamfering, frosting and polishing, made of frosted stainless steel, blue screws and white dial The second men’s black watch is resolute and bold, with a domineering appearance, blue hands and ‘stone’. The last black watch is elegant, with pink borders, red hands and “jewelry”.

All Black Tourbillon Ori

As for the time indication, the hours and minutes on the main dial are displayed in jumps through large apertures. In the middle of the dial is the day / night display. At the same time, below the second hand, the tourbillon still rotates at the rate of one minute per revolution even if the animation is not started.
The rest of the dial is a sphere that can cover the sapphire dome that rotates around it at different angles, thus showing the moon phase profit and loss. The small dial of the calendar features a skip week display. The chronograph function is displayed on the two 30-second dials with jump-back hands, with a hundredth of a second indicator between the two dials.
Source: Slyde

High-tech Crystal: Jaeger-lecoultre Premium Watches Set With Thousands Of Pets

Nowadays, watches are more and more focused on appearance and functional design. If a watch is to reach the best-selling state, it must have both. Jaeger-LeCoultre high-end watches are novel in appearance, high in functionality and price, and complicated in craftsmanship. They are definitely the crystallization of high technology, novel designs, and outstanding performance. They have conquered men who love high-end watches worldwide. Jaeger-LeCoultre
Today, the reverso family has added a new technology darling for the first time with a black ceramic case, which not only integrates various cutting-edge technological achievements, but also inherits the series of reversible double-sided cases, showing a variety of complex functions.
In addition, in order to meet the needs of world-class polo athletes, Jaeger-LeCoultre has also equipped with precise mechanical devices to provide clear and easy-to-read timing displays, allowing polo players to accurately measure the time of each round. The date window is displayed. The back of the watch shows the time in 24 time zones around the world at a glance, which is an indispensable practical function for travelers who travel frequently around the world. This watch has three characteristics of bold innovation, noble elegance, and durability. Its accuracy and reliability absolutely meet the most stringent requirements of outstanding athletes.
Only in the reverso squadra world chronograph polo fields such outstanding gems, ceramic materials can highlight its charm in the reverso series. This rugged, high-tech watch is highly sporty and complements the avant-garde design of a black ceramic reversible case supported by rose gold or titanium alloy lugs. In order to complete this perfect masterpiece, it is necessary to break through the restrictions on the use of ceramics and develop new production technologies that are better than the past.
The raw material of high-tech ceramics is zirconia, and a small amount of yttrium is added as an organic binder to increase the stability of the fusion process. The two raw materials are directly pressed and subjected to a high temperature of 2000 degrees, and fired into a very uniform ceramic block . The first finished product is just the initial shape, far from the elegant shape of the design, so it needs to be fired at 2000 degrees again to make it harder.
At the same time, in order to avoid the formation of bubbles or voids, x-ray inspection technology is also used in the process. Finally, careful polishing and modification can achieve the excellent reverso squadra case. Not only that, the difficulty is that the reverso case has more than 50 parts, and the manufacturing process of the reversible case is extremely complicated.
The polishing and polishing process is also very important. In order to create a precise and detailed watch case, it must go through a cnc 5-axis processing program. This process is also an important part of constructing a reversible rectangular case, so that the movement can be assembled later. The whole process is complicated and requires four times more labor than a classic case.
Special tools are required for processing, including grinding wheels coated with diamond crystals, and diamond powder for polishing. After a long period of unremitting research, Jaeger-LeCoultre finally created a material that is heavier than titanium, has twice the hardness of stainless steel, but is much lighter than stainless steel. The reverso squadra world chronograph polo fields has a sturdy case with a uniform appearance. It is a perfect crystallization of cutting-edge technology to ensure durability.

Bryce New Dive Watch Br 03-92 Diver Black Matte

Professional watches for professionals

   Bell & Ross, a model brand in the professional aviation timepiece field, challenges the rules and takes the aircraft cockpit dashboard as an inspiration to create the iconic classic design dial with a “circle in the middle”.

   Watches designed for specific environments
   If you dive into the sea, the pressure becomes deeper—when the watch becomes more readable—the Bell & Ross dive watch is a wristwatch specifically designed for such extreme environments. table. Each Bell & Ross watch is designed to fit its specific environment of use. For divers, Bell & Ross has developed professional watches that are perfect for underwater environments. They can effectively assist divers to measure time in extreme environments. Readable, practical, accurate and reliable-fully meet the needs of professional divers.

   Practical Essential ‘Tools’
   Bell & Ross’ expertise in diving watches is the result of the experience and knowledge of many brand designers, watchmakers and professional divers.
   Bell & Ross has a long history in the field of diving watches. HYDROMAX ® designed by the brand in 1997 has set an excellent record of water resistance to 11,100 meters. In 2002, Bell & Ross developed the DIVER 300 chronograph equipped with two chronograph dials; then it released the BR02 series in 2007; in 2017, the BR03-92 Diver diving watch debuted, the iconic BR square and practical lines It caused a huge sensation in the field of diving watches, and once again proved the brand’s extraordinary ability to create professional underwater watches.

   This square diving performance has been developed into a separate series, and now two new works have been added to this series: BR03-92 Diver Black Matte and BR03-92 Diver Green Bronze.
   ISO 6425: safety first Not all watches can be dive watches

   To define a true professional diving watch, there are very detailed standards set out in official regulations. The ISO 6425 standard lists a large number of technical parameters necessary for professional diving watches, including the waterproof performance of the watch reaching at least 100 meters, the unidirectional rotating bezel with graduation scale, operation indicator and luminous coating markings. Maintain legibility in dark environments and require excellent shock and magnetic protection.
   Dive watch series introduces black ceramic material

   The new watch made of this ceramic case of the BR03 DIVER series once again demonstrates the brand’s avant-garde watchmaking vision.
   Inspired by cutting-edge military technology
   BR03-92 Diver Black Matte perfectly matches the aeronautical style that is essential to Bell & Ross’s design concept. In aerospace engineering, especially in the field of aerospace, ceramics are the most commonly used materials for parts that have high temperature, acid and corrosion resistance requirements, such as heat shields and rocket heads. Bell & Ross’s Swiss factory that constantly pursues excellence has improved this high-tech ceramic and developed a special manufacturing process to enhance the inherent characteristics of high-tech ceramics: truly scratch-resistant, It is comfortable to wear, soft to the touch, and capable of temperature regulation, that is, the user can reach the human body temperature immediately after wearing. In addition, the high-tech ceramics developed by Bell & Ross are comparable to diamonds in hardness, have amazing abrasion resistance, resistance to deformation, and are lighter than stainless steel and less allergenic.
   New tools for purists

   BR03-92 Diver Black Matte The matte black ceramic modeled on the anti-glare coating of aircraft dashboards perfectly matches the aeronautical style that is essential to Bell & Ross’s design concept. The minimalist design, the combination of a black dial with large white numbers, the shape of the hands, and the fluorescent coating all help users to read the time immediately in any light condition.
   This new ceramic watch once again confirms the brand’s concept of functionalism and pragmatism, and highlights the brand’s pioneering and innovative spirit. By introducing high-tech materials to professional underwater watches, Bell & Ross has created a new functional watch that reinterprets the original value concept of the brand’s iconic BR01 watch.

Number: BR0392-D-BL-CE / SRB
Movement: Movement number BR-CAL.302. Mechanical self-winding movement.
Mirror: Sapphire crystal with anti-glare coating.
Functions: hours, minutes, seconds and date.
Water resistance: 300 meters.
Case: 42 mm in diameter. Matt black ceramic. Unidirectional rotating ceramic bezel with 60-minute graduation.
Strap: black rubber and super stretch black synthetic fabric.
Dial: black. Metal applique numbers and hour markers filled with Superluminova®.
Buckle: pin buckle. Black PVD * coated steel.

333 Tissot Collection 2009 Limited Edition Watches

Time seems to be back in 1941. This collection of limited edition 2009 reproduces the classic design of Tissot’s best-selling watch from 1941 and has also been certified by the Swiss Official Observatory (COSC). The watches are independently tested at the Swiss official observatory for five consecutive days, at five locations, and at three different temperatures to ensure accurate timekeeping.

     The dial of the watch is like a compass. It uses a mysterious golden scale, which meticulously outlines the unparalleled precision of the ETA 7753 automatic chronograph watch movement. The wearer has a precision mechanical instrument. The watch is also equipped with an extremely accurate rangefinder that measures the distance between the wearer and the lightning. On a black silk-like dial, two chronograph discs and a spiral tachymeter at the center position form a row of crossed circular patterns that perfectly connect the 9 o’clock and 3 o’clock positions. Even scales use bold Arabic numerals, and odd scales are dotted with bars. The staggered arrangement adds a layered mystery to the dial. The case diameter is 38 mm, which is the same as the original 1941, and the strap is a precious alligator leather strap.
Recommended reason:
① It combines historical classic design and modern high-precision timing.
② Limited edition of 333 pieces in 18K rose gold.

Mid-autumn Night, The Moon Phase, The Poetic Life Of The Starry Sky

There are bright moons at sea. The Mid-Autumn Festival is approaching, and the brands celebrate the reunion day, providing watch fans with a variety of exquisite and charming moon phase watches, and appreciate the beautiful meaning brought by the traditional Chinese festivals.
In ancient civilizations, the first simple method of measuring time was to use the natural cycle of the year, the lunar month, and the solar day. In ancient Roman times, the first calendar described the lunar month. Seven days in a week symbolized the gods that dominate the seven planets. This magical horoscope has continued perfectly to this day. People’s research on time has never stopped, not only in pursuit of more accurate timekeeping, but also in keeping with the different times in which we live.
Jacques Dro The Eclipse Moon Phases
The Eclipse watch, in addition to displaying the date, month, and year, also has a moon phase display that makes all astronomers, explorers and artists fascinated. On the dial, a moon inspired by nineteenth-century engravings with a smiley motif appears behind the matte black disc, in sharp contrast to the shiny dial.
New moon phases appear every morning
The day after day, the moon phase indicator shows the latest moon phase in the early hours of the morning, guarding this remarkable timepiece in its unique form. With outstanding mechanical properties and pleasing visual enjoyment, the watch shows its extremely pure and extreme beauty. The 43mm red gold case and the dark black Grand Feu Grand Enamel dial complement each other, with eight glittering stars embellishing it. Its design is inspired by the lucky number of the watch factory, but also by the precious star logo of Jacques Droe. .
Classico Luna, Jade Bow, Athens
When the moon rotates around the earth in a clockwise direction, it reflects the sun’s rays, and the gold moon watch displays this angle of illumination. The moon phase dial rotates around the center of the watch, making one revolution every 12 hours. Its rotation speed will slowly change color in accordance with the 29.5-day cycle of the moon phase, and become larger or smaller as the moon’s circle lacks. Athens Classico Luna
Men’s watches are named ‘Yu Gong’ and women’s watches are named ‘Juan Juan’, mastering the magnetic field philosophy of men and women.
Roger Dubuis La Monégasque Moon Phase Perpetual Calendar
The circular dial extends the contour of the bezel to create a long line, and with the RD821J movement with 358 components, it creates a great achievement of miniature time. The watch is easy to operate, and many display functions are clear and easy to read: the dial perfectly reflects the balance and harmony of technology and beauty. 44 mm rose gold case, water resistant to 50 meters.
Glashütte PanoMaticLunar Moon Phases
The Pano eccentric series is famous for its unique asymmetric dial. The new PanoMaticLunar design is more mature and the layout is simpler. The hour / minute dial and small seconds dial are still on the left side of the dial. The center of the circle is vertically aligned. The big date and superb moon The phase display is below it and above it.
Glashütte PanoMaticLunar Moon Phases
银色 Moon phase display The silver moon and stars embedded in the dark blue night sky make this watch more perfect. Using the extraordinary automatic winding movement 90-02 from the Saxon factory, decorated with 47 gems and a power reserve of 42 hours.
Mido Belem Sairee Moon Phases
腕表 The 6 o’clock position of this watch has an hour lap and a gorgeous moon phase ring. At 12 o’clock, the minute hand is timed, and at the same time, two small hollow windows display the month and week. The inside of the dial is extended with a date circle, and the date can be easily read through the long central arrow pointer. At 9 o’clock, the two concentric circles function as a second hand and a 24-hour timer. Through the transparent bottom cover, you can easily observe the powerful movement of the multi-function mechanical movement and the carved rotor.

Vacheron Constantin Proudly Presents The Exhibition ‘bernard Cumi — Architecture: Concepts And Marks’ To Create The Eternal Beauty Of Excellence In Design

[March 12, 2016, Shanghai] As the world’s oldest watch manufacturer, Vacheron Constantin has never stopped producing since its establishment in 1755. The brand will present a retrospective exhibition of Bernard Tschumi’s works at the Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art from March 13 to June 19, 2016, demonstrating the beauty of architectural design. As a world-renowned architect, Mr. Cumy designed Vacheron Constantin’s iconic building in Geneva, Switzerland.

Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art

Vacheron Constantin proudly presents ‘Bernard Cumi — Architecture: Concepts and Marks’ at the Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art, demonstrating the beauty of architectural design

‘Bernard Trimy-Architecture: Concepts and Signs’ Exhibition Area A ‘Declaration: Space and Events’

‘Bernard Trimi — Architecture: Concepts and Symbols’ Exhibition Area B ‘Functional Settings / Parallel / Overlay’

‘Bernard Trimy — Architecture: Concepts and Marks’ Exhibition Area ‘Vector and Enclosure’

Design drawings, manuscripts and 1: 200 models of Vacheron Constantin watchmaking factory are displayed in ‘Bernard Cumi — Architecture: Concepts and Marks’ Exhibition Area ‘Vector and Enclosure’

   Continuing the exhibition at the Pompidou Centre in Paris in 2014 and the Basel Museum of Architecture in Switzerland in 2015, the exhibition ‘Bernard Cumi — Architecture: Concepts and Signs’ presents Mr. Cumi as an architectural designer, education Home and writer achievement. The exhibition explores the design process of the building by showing the significant works of Mr. Qu Mi’s long career, which is also a series of discussions and responses to the definition of contemporary architecture. The models of the Vacheron Constantin headquarters and the watch factory building are also a highlight of this exhibition. This modernist building uses a semi-Maltese cross shape to perfectly realize the space combining the brand’s administrative and production departments. The design of the building is inspired by ‘enclosing’, an important concept developed by Mr. Qu Mi in his career. The design of the building not only provides an excellent working environment for all employees, but also inherits and promotes Vacheron Constantin’s ‘dedication ‘Keep improving’ brand concept.

‘Bernard Trimy — Architecture: Concepts and Signs’ Exhibition D, ‘Concept, Context, Content’

‘Bernard Trimi-Architecture: Concepts and Signs’ Exhibition Area E ‘Concepts-Forms’

Vacheron Constantin Watch Factory, Plan-les-Ouates (Photo © Peter Mauss / Esto)

Vacheron Constantin Watch Factory, Plan-les-Ouates (Photo © Peter Mauss / Esto)

Vacheron Constantin Watch Factory, Watchmaker’s Workshop (Photo by Nathan Beck / Vacheron Constantin)

Vacheron Constantin Watch Factory, Atrium (Photo by Christian Richters)

Ms. Song Yunlun (left) and Mr. Bernard Cumi (right), CEO of Vacheron Constantin China

Ms. Song Yunlun, Chief Executive Officer, Vacheron Constantin China

Bernard Kumi

   Vacheron Constantin and Bernard Kumi share common values ​​inspired by the brand’s watchmaking philosophy. Vacheron Constantin’s watchmakers broke the space limitation, endowed the mechanical soul between square inches, and carefully modified every movement component hidden in the case-only the watchmaker can see the part, because if there is no inherent beauty, How does the external beauty appear. This coincides with Mr. Qu Mi’s philosophy. Master watchmakers and architects are committed to breaking through unavoidable constraints, turning all constraints into feasible ways, integrating and looking to the future to create a timeless works.

Mr Bernard Kumi explained the exhibition in person

Lecture by Mr. Bernard Tumi

The Secretary of the Party Committee of the Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art Ms. Huang Wei (left), Mr. Bernard Kumi (middle) and Ms. Song Lunlun, CEO of Vacheron Constantin China (right) at the opening press conference

From left to right: Ms. Xu Lihua, representative of the Swiss Foundation, Ms. Gong Yan, curator of the Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art, Mr. Bernard Cumi, and Ms. Song Shulun, CEO of Vacheron Constantin China, at the opening reception

Exhibition Information
Exhibition Date: March 13th – June 19th, 2016
Opening hours: Tuesday to Sunday / 11: 00-19: 00 (Admission is closed after 18:00)
Venue: Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art (200 Huayuangang Road, Huangpu District, Shanghai)
About Vacheron Constantin
   Founded in Geneva in 1755, Vacheron Constantin has a long history of more than 260 years and is the oldest watch manufacturer in the world without interrupting production. Vacheron Constantin follows the spirit of fine watchmaking with superb technology and ultimate quality, and continuously designs, develops and produces extraordinary watch pieces. These timepieces carry the three basic values ​​of the brand: superb watchmaking skills, harmonious and creative aesthetic design, and perfect arts and crafts.
   Vacheron Constantin has always worked closely with the art world and the cultural world to promote the development of handicraft art, the core of contemporary creative field. At the same time, Vacheron Constantin provides a cooperation platform for talents in the field of design, highlighting the excellent results of the combination of the two.
   Vacheron Constantin strives to promote vibrant creativity and is committed to the development and inheritance of handicraft arts worldwide. It is precisely because of this persistent determination that these traditional handicraft arts can be passed on. In the watchmaking factory of Vacheron Constantin, between the master watchmaker and the apprentice, through this traditional inheritance method, traditional craftsmanship is passed on from generation to generation.
About Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art
   Founded on October 1, 2012, Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art is the first public contemporary art museum in mainland China and the main venue of the Shanghai Biennale. It is located on Shanghai’s mother river, the Huangpu River, with a construction area of ​​41,000 square meters and an exhibition area of ​​15,000 square meters. The interior cantilever is 27 meters and the chimney up to 165 meters is both an urban landmark and an independent exhibition space.
   The building of Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art was transformed from the former Nanshi Power Plant. During the 2010 Shanghai World Expo, it was once an ‘urban future museum’. It has witnessed Shanghai’s urban transition from the industrial to the information age. Its rough and unruly industrial architectural style has provided artistic workers with a wealth of imagination and creative inspiration. As the ‘production workshop’ of the new city culture, constantly renewing itself and keeping itself in progress is the source of life for this museum. The Shanghai Museum of Contemporary Art is working hard to provide the public with an open platform for contemporary culture and art display and learning; eliminate the barriers between art and life; and promote cooperation and knowledge production between different cultures and arts.

Cartier Jewelry Workers Strike

According to Agence France-Presse, last Friday, the Cartier flagship store in Paris gathered about 70 protesters, who were gem polishers from the Cartier jewelry processing factory in the French city of Reims.
 Cartier jewelry workers strike
 These workers went on strike at Reims on Tuesday. They said: ‘We will not give up. Although we will lose revenue from the strike, the company will pay millions for this.’ ‘Cartier’s performance is booming, but we have been holding Minimum wage. ‘
A worker said that he has worked for Cartier for 13 years, but his monthly salary is still only 1,300 euros (about 11,000 yuan).

Cartier jewelry workers strike
 They demanded a monthly salary increase of 200 euros, but Cartier management only agreed to an increase of 75 euros.
Cartier Cartier, France’s most famous jeweller, was founded in 1847 and is currently owned by Richemont, the Swiss luxury goods group.
财 In fiscal year 2012/2013, Richemont Group’s sales amounted to 10.15 billion euros and net profit was 2 billion euros, which has doubled from five years ago. Operating profit also increased from 17.9% in 2009 to 23.9%.